VES-3-06-RR:IT:EC 113846 CC G.W. Birkhead, Esq. Vandeventer, Black, Meredith & Martin500 World Trade Center Norfolk, VA 23510-1699RE: Voyage to Nowhere; Coastwise Trade; 46 U.S.C. App. 289Dear Mr. Birkhead: This is in response to your letter of February 12, 1997, onbehalf of General Ship Cruising Corporation, requesting a rulingon the voyage of the REGAL STAR. FACTS: You state that the REGAL STAR is an Italian-flagged vessel. The intended use of the vessel will be to sail from Miami tooutside of the three-mile territorial limit and return to theMiami. You state that the passengers will not go ashore, eventemporarily, at any other coastwise point. In addition,according to your submissions, there will be gambling on boardthe vessel, which will not take place within the territorialwaters of the United States. You request a ruling letter "thatthe vessel would not be required to obtain a coastwiseendorsement (46 CFR 67.19) from the U.S. Coast Guard, but ratherwill be eligible to engage in the above described activity with aregistry endorsement (46 CFR 67.17).ISSUE: Whether the transportation of the passengers in the subjectvessel is a voyage to nowhere and therefore not in violation of46 U.S.C. App. 289.LAW AND ANALYSIS: 46 U.S.C. App. 289, the passenger coastwise law, prohibitsthe transportation of passengers between points embraced withinthe coastwise laws of the United States, either directly or byway of a foreign port, in a non-coastwise-qualified vessel (i.e.,any vessel not built in and documented under the laws of theUnited States and owned by persons who are citizens of the UnitedStates). For purposes of 46 U.S.C. App. 289, the termpassenger is defined as "... any person carried on a vessel whois not connected with the operation of such vessel, hernavigation, ownership, or business." 19 CFR 4.50(b). In interpreting the coastwise laws (i.e., 46 U.S.C. App. 289, 883) Customs has ruled that a point in the United Statesterritorial waters is a point in the United States embracedwithin the coastwise laws. The territorial waters of the UnitedStates consist of the territorial sea, defined as the belt, 3nautical miles wide, seaward of the territorial sea baseline, andto points located in internal waters, landward of the territorialsea baseline, in cases where the baseline and coastline differ. In its administration of 46 U.S.C. App. 289, the CustomsService has ruled that the carriage of passengers entirely withinterritorial waters, even though the passengers disembark at theirpoint of embarkation and the vessel touches no other coastwisepoint, is considered coastwise trade subject to the coastwiselaws. However, the transportation of passengers to the high seas(i.e., beyond the 3 mile territorial sea) and back to the pointof embarkation, assuming the passengers do not go ashore, eventemporarily, at another United States point, often called a"voyage to nowhere," is not considered coastwise trade. 29O.A.G. 318 (1912). Concerning the proposed use of the REGAL STAR, thetransportation of passengers from a U.S. point to internationalwaters (i.e., beyond the 3 mile territorial sea) and back to thepoint of embarkation, without the passengers disembarking, wouldconstitute a voyage to nowhere. Consequently, such a use of thevessel would not violate 46 U.S.C. App. 289. Concerning your requests about endorsements, we defer to theU.S. Coast Guard since the vessel documentation laws of theUnited States are administered by that agency. We note, however,since the use of your vessel as described above will notconstitute coastwise trade, a coastwise endorsement would not benecessary for such use. Finally, although not specifically made a subject of theruling request by you, we recognize the potential for certainissues regarding the conduct of gambling operations aboard thevessel. Consequently, we are enclosing a copy of HQ 113479,dated June 29, 1995, which addresses these issues. HOLDING: The transportation of the passengers in the subject vesselis a voyage to nowhere and therefore is not in violation of 46U.S.C. App. 289. Sincerely,Acting Chief Entry and Carrier Rulings Branch Enclosure
Margaret H. Baron, Jeffrey H. Barminko, Brad M. Reinholt, Mohandas Narla; Stimulation of the Proliferation of Mouse and Human Definitive Erythroid Progenitors By Activation of the Vitamin D Receptor Transcription Factor. Blood 2018; 132 (Supplement 1): 1029. doi: -2018-99-113846
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Article Source: Decreases in Molecular Diffusion, Perfusion Fraction and Perfusion-Related Diffusion in Fibrotic Livers: A Prospective Clinical Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging Study Lu PX,Huang H,Yuan J,Zhao F,Chen ZY, et al. (2014) Decreases in Molecular Diffusion, Perfusion Fraction and Perfusion-Related Diffusion in Fibrotic Livers: A Prospective Clinical Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging Study.PLOS ONE 9(12): e113846. 041b061a72