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Backflow is a term in plumbing for an unwanted flow of water in the reverse direction.[1] It can be a serious health risk for the contamination of potable water supplies with foul water. In the most obvious case, a toilet flush cistern and its water supply must be isolated from the toilet bowl. For this reason, building codes mandate a series of measures and backflow prevention devices to prevent backflow.


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Automatic check valves are required to prevent back pressure. Regulations for these check valves specify the design capabilities of the valve used, according to the hazard. Category 2 contamination may be prevented by a single check valve, but category 3 requires a double check valve (these are manufactured as a convenient single unit, or even integrated into tap (faucet) fittings). Category 5 requires an air gap, not merely a valve. A recent introduction to the UK has been the Reduced Pressure Zone (RPZ) valve, a form of double check valve where the intervening zone is drained and normally kept empty.[1] If the downstream valve leaks and permits backflow, this will drain out through the vent rather than building up pressure against the upstream valve. These valves are complex, requiring certified installation and annual checks. They are used for category 4 systems, such as fire sprinklers where the system has an antifreeze additive.

Backwater sanitary valves (also known as "check valves" or "backwater valves") are also often referred to as "backflow preventers"[4][5] They are intended to prevent backflow of sewage on the sanitary sewer line during a flood or sewer blockage, and have no connection with potable water.

In our homes and businesses, water is often used to dilute, mix, cool and clean. This water may come into contact with dangerous chemicals and substances. Because of this, laws were enacted to protect the drinking water and require that cross connections be protected from backflow.

The CCCP surveys plumbing systems to identify cross connection hazards and determines if the correct backflow assembly is installed and maintained. The City of Durango will contact you to schedule a survey of your property.

The City of Olathe requires all Cross Connection systems to have an approved backflow prevention assembly installed to protect the City's water system from contamination. Additionally, the City requires annual testing of all commercial backflow assemblies, as stated in the City of Olathe Municipal Code (Section 15.08.090) as well as Kansas State Statute 65-163a. Testing of the device(s) must be performed by a Certified Tester, and results must be submitted online to Aqua Backflow by the test due date.

The City no longer requires testing of residential irrigation backflow devices, but it is still highly recommended. If you would like to remove or cap off your system permanently, an Individual Trade Permit is required.

A backflow containment assembly is required to be installed after the meter for all industrial and commercial accounts. The installation of a backflow containment assembly must be completed by a licensed plumber. Testing of a backflow assembly, which is required when installed and every twelve months thereafter, must be completed by a certified backflow tester. A certified backflow tester is typically a licensed plumber. Installation and testing of a backflow containment assembly is the responsibility of the water consumer.

The City of Bozeman has a cross-connection control program that employs industry best practices in many areas, including working with customers to ensure that their backflow preventers are tested regularly.

The State of Montana Department of Environment Quality has accepted the standards set forth in the Manual of Cross-Connection Control, 10th Edition (MCCC). The City of Bozeman administers its cross-connection control program also in accordance with the MCCC. Testers who are approved to test backflow preventers within the City are required to be certified by the American Backflow Prevention Association which also has adopted the procedures outlined in the MCCC.

Flagstaff's water distribution system is designed to keep the water flowing from the distribution system to you, the customer. However, when hydraulic conditions within the system deviate from "normal" conditions, water flow can be reversed. When this backflow happens, contaminated water from homes or businesses can enter the water distribution system. The Cross-Connection Control Program is in place to prevent contamination by backflow.

Residents and businesses that have a potential for contamination of the water distribution system are required to install backflow assemblies. Single family residences used solely for residential purposes are exempt from assembly requirements. It is the responsibility of the owner of the assembly to ensure the device is always in satisfactory operation condition. Backflow assemblies require an annual test to be in compliance with the City.

Backflow assemblies need to be located as close to the water meter as possible in a heated enclosure. If the Industrial Waste Program has determined you may install a backflow prevention assembly in a location other than just downstream of the water meter, you will need to submit a Hold Harmless Agreement (PDF). Please contact Industrial Pretreatment Supervisor for more information on how to receive approval for this variance and how to submit this agreement.

In accordance with TCEQ Rules and Regulations for Public Water Systems, and City Ordinance Sec. 26-121.-2006 International Plumbing Code and City Ordinance Sec. 26-32. 2006 International Residential Code, states no water connection from any public drinking water system shall be allowed at any residence or establishment where an actual or potential contamination hazard exists unless the public water system is protected by an air gap or blackflow prevention assembly. All backflow prevention assemblies are required to tested upon installation by a certified tester. Please click Backflow Prevention Assembly Test & Maintenance Report for the online form. Reports are submitted to the City upon installation or relocation of a device and at least annually if the device is protection from a High Health Hazard/Risk.

The City of Hemet is committed to providing customers with safe drinking water through means that protect both human health and our environment. The purpose of the backflow prevention division is to protect the public potable water supply of the city from the possibility of contamination or pollution. To protect the public water system, the backflow division promotes the elimination or control of existing cross-connections and provides for the maintenance of a continuing program of cross-connection control, which will systematically and effectively prevent the contamination or pollution of all potable water systems.

Registered Backflow Prevention Assembly Testers are listed at the following links. To verify the status of a backflow prevention assembly tester, please visit our online database, and click on Public Search. Then select Backflow Tester from the Program Name. Once the individual's record appears, click Details to learn more about their registration. If you find an error on the list, please notify the program contact below.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) holds local water suppliers responsible for maintaining safe and reliable drinking water systems. Hazards associated with backflow could include contamination of drinking water. Therefore, in order to protect the drinking water supply, approved backflow prevention assemblies are required by Las Cruces Utilities Backflow Ordinance 1694.

These assemblies must be installed in accordance with relevant IBC and UPC plumbing/building codes. Testable backflow assemblies have test cocks and shut-off valves and must be tested by a certified tester when being installed, relocated, or repaired.

To test and repair a backflow device, a person must have a valid Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester Certification through the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH). To verify the status of a backflow prevention assembly tester, visit the IDPH online database, and click on Public Search. Then select Backflow Tester from the Program Name.

A cross connection is a permanent or temporary connection between potable drinking water and anything which can pollute or contaminate the water supply. For example, without backflow protection, attaching a fertilizer sprayer to a garden hose or even placing your hose in a soap bucket for car washing can create a cross connection and possible health hazards.

Backflow is the undesirable reversal of flow of non-potable water or other substances through a cross connection and into the piping of a public water system or consumer's potable water system. This reversal of flow or "backflow" can allow contaminated water to flow backward, drawing a contaminant into the water supply. There are two types of backflow - backpressure backflow and back-siphonage backflow.

City of Bend's Cross Connection Control Code requires installation of specific backflow protection assemblies to be installed and tested annually according to currently adopted uniform plumbing code and Oregon Health Division Rules.

Backflow assemblies must be tested at the time of installation, annually after installation, after repairs and after relocating. Testing in Oregon must be done by Department of Human Services certified backflow testers.

All potable water systems must be protected against back-siphonage and backflow with approved assemblies. There are numerous types of assemblies available to provide this type of protection. The state law governs the selection and minimum installation standards of assemblies. It is necessary to choose the proper backflow assembly for the use intended.

Backpressure backflow also referred to as backpressure, is the reverse from normal flow direction within a piping system that is the result of the "downstream pressure" being higher than the supply pressure 041b061a72

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